Wound healing is a complex process and often delayed in patients with underlying chronic conditions. The cost of wound care is a significant burden to the society, warranting new techniques to prompt wound healing. Several studies have reported on the beneficial effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) function in recruiting host cells, releasing secretory factors and matrix proteins thereby increasing wound heal. These secrete bioactive trophic factors from MSCs also includes extracellular vesicles (EVs) or exosomes. Recent studies have shown that EVs are one of the key secretory products of MSCs mediating cell-to-cell communication to enhance wound healing. (read more…)
Stages of acute wound healing response under normal physiologic conditions. a) Blood clotting, platelet aggregation, and migration of neutrophils and macrophages to the site of injury is initiated due to injury. Within 24 hours, a blood clot is initiated that is composed of fibrin and fibronectin providing a scaffold for cell migration and aggregated platelets and are known to secrete growth factors into the surrounding tissue. b) By 3 days numerous neutrophils and macrophages are recruited to the site of injury, phagocytosing and killing microorganisms as well as producing growth factors into the wound environment. By 5 days tissue granulation starts that is composed of fibroblasts, additional macrophages, and neovasculature. The last phase includes epidermal migration and ingrowths of granulation tissue.