Treating the hypoxic region of the tumor remains a significant challenge. Researchers from Stanford University set out to develop an exosome platform that can target regions of tumor hypoxia and that can be monitored in vivo using magnetic particle imaging (MPI). Four types of exosomes (generated under hypoxic or normoxic conditions, and with or without exposure to X-ray radiation) were isolated from MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Exosomes were labeled by DiO, a fluorescent lipophilic tracer, to quantify their uptake by hypoxic cancer cells. Subsequently, the exosomes were modified to carry SPIO (superparamagnetic iron oxide) nanoparticles and Olaparib (PARP inhibitor). FACS and fluorescence microscopy showed that hypoxic cells preferentially take up exosomes released by hypoxic cells, compared with other exosome formulations. In addition, the distribution of SPIO-labeled exosomes was successively imaged in vivo using MPI. Finally, the therapeutic efficacy of Olaparib-loaded exosomes was demonstrated by increased apoptosis and slower tumor growth in vivo. This novel theranostic platform could be used as an effective strategy to monitor exosomes in vivo and deliver therapeutics to hypoxic tumors.
Development and MPI tracking of novel hypoxia-targeted theranostic exosomes
Jung KO, Jo H, Yu JH, Gambhir SS, Pratx G. (2018) Development and MPI tracking of novel hypoxia-targeted theranostic exosomes. Biomaterials 177:139-148. [abstract]