Parasite-host cell interaction can be modulated by a dynamic communication between extracellular vesicles (EVs). They should play key roles in cell-cell communications transferring biomolecules (miRNA, proteins, soluble factors) from one cell to another cell. While many names have been used to denominate EVs, a better comprehension to understand these vesicles is raised when we classify it according to biogenesis: originated from multivesicular bodies, named exosomes, and from plasmatic membranes, denominated microvesicles.
Extracellular vesicle release during protozoan-host cell interaction. 1 The protozoan has reached the mammalian host. 2 The protozoan has started to release EVs. 3 The protozoan contacts with the host cell releasing EVs that can be received and internalized by the host cell, and also the proper host cell could start to release EVs. 4 Different kinds of EVs could participate in the dynamic contact between the protozoan and host cell: EVs from the protozoan, EVs from host cells, and fusion between the protozoan and host cell EVs that can produce an effect in the protozoan or host cells
Here, the authors review EV participation during the protozoan-host cell interaction and reinforced the differences and similarities between exosomes and microvesicles, suggesting different intracellular routes and functions. They also discuss perspectives to study EVs and the role of EVs in diagnosis and chemotherapies of infectious diseases.