Cell Derived Nanovesicles (CDNs) have been developed from the rapidly expanding field of exosomes, representing a class of bioinspired Drug Delivery Systems (DDS). However, translation to clinical applications is limited by the low yield and multi-step approach in isolating naturally secreted exosomes. Here, researchers from the National University of Singapore. show the first demonstration of a simple and rapid production method of CDNs using spin cups via a cell shearing approach, which offers clear advantages in terms of yield and cost-effectiveness over both traditional exosomes isolation, and also existing CDNs fabrication techniques. The CDNs obtained were of a higher protein yield and showed similarities in terms of physical characterization, protein and lipid analysis to both exosomes and CDNs previously reported in the literature. In addition, the researchers investigated the mechanisms of cellular uptake of CDNs in vitro and their biodistribution in an in vivo mouse tumour model. Colocalization of the CDNs at the tumour site in a cancer mouse model was demonstrated, highlighting the potential for CDNs as anti-cancer strategy. Taken together, the results suggest that CDNs could provide a cost-effective alternative to exosomes as an ideal drug nanocarrier.
Schematic representation of CDNs production (experimental set-up)
Spin cups were fitted with various size membrane filters and U937 cells were forced through the membrane pores to the desired hydrodynamic diameter range using a benchtop centrifuge, adjusting variables of centrifugal force and time to shear cells to obtain CDNs. The dispersion was subsequently passed through a size exclusion column to remove unwanted debris material.